T able of Z Scores. The standard normal distribution is a normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of 1. The standard normal distribution is centered at zero and the degree to which a given measurement deviates from the mean is given by the standard deviation. To this point, we have been using "X" to denote the variable of interest e. However, when using a standard normal distribution, we will use "Z" to refer to a variable in the context of a standard normal distribution.
Seven dead after WWII B-17 plane crashes, erupts into flames at Bradley Airport
For any given Z-score we can compute the area under the curve to the left of that Z-score. The table in the frame below shows the probabilities for the standard normal distribution. Examine the table and note that a "Z" score of 0. This table is organized to provide the area under the curve to the left of or less of a specified value or "Z value". In this case, because the mean is zero and the standard deviation is 1, the Z value is the number of standard deviation units away from the mean, and the area is the probability of observing a value less than that particular Z value.
Note also that the table shows probabilities to two decimal places of Z. The units place and the first decimal place are shown in the left hand column, and the second decimal place is displayed across the top row.
But let's get back to the question about the probability that the BMI is less than 30, i. We can answer this question using the standard normal distribution. The figures below show the distributions of BMI for men aged 60 and the standard normal distribution side-by-side. The area under each curve is one but the scaling of the X axis is different. Note, however, that the areas to the left of the dashed line are the same. The BMI distribution ranges from 11 to 47, while the standardized normal distribution, Z, ranges from -3 to 3.
The following formula converts an X value into a Z scorealso called a standardized score :. Thus, the probability that a male aged 60 has BMI less than 30 is Again we standardize:. Note, however, that the table always gives the probability that Z is less than the specified value, i.
As an alternative to looking up normal probabilities in the table or using Excel, we can use R to compute probabilities. For example. What is the probability that a 60 year old man in the population above has a BMI less than 29 the mean? What is the probability that a 60 year old man will have a BMI less than 30?
The Z-score was 0. What is the probability that a 60 year old man will have a BMI greater than 35? What is the probability that a male aged 60 has BMI between 30 and 35? Note that this is the same as asking what proportion of men aged 60 have BMI between 30 and Try to formulate and answer on your own before looking at the explanation below.
This probability can be thought of as follows P 0. These two results can be used to compute the probability that a BMI lies between these two values.CNN Prairie dogs infected with the plague -- yes, the plague -- have shut down parts of a city and wildlife area near Denver this summer. Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. More Videos What is the plague?
Unaffected refuge areas reopened Saturdaybut other locations in Commerce City, a suburb north of Denver, will remain closed until Labor Day weekend, the Tri-County Health Department said. Douglas, Jr. Read More. Why is bubonic plague still a thing? Despite its name and fatal history in the Middle Ages, the plague is rare and generally treatable, at least in the United States. The plague is caused by the Yersinia pestis bacteria and is fairly common in the rural western US, including Colorado, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
On average, seven human plague cases have been reported each year in recent decades, according to the CDC. In general, small mammals and rodents with infected fleas carry the disease, which can spread to pets or humans by flea bites or contact with an infected mammal. Untreated bubonic plague can turn into the more serious pneumonic plague, which causes rapidly developing pneumonia after bacteria spread to the lungs.Murphy, Holly Yan and Jason Hanna contributed to this report.
Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. A B Flying Fortress takes part in a airshow. Now, only a handful of the Flying Fortresses still take to the air, usually for air shows and special events. Thirteen people -- 10 passengers and three crew members -- were on board when the plane crashed at the end of a runway, authorities said. Seven died, officials said. Richard Blumenthal, advocating scrutiny of what happened.
Read More. Nine-O-Nine belonged to the nonprofit Collings Foundation, which uses about two dozen aircraft to educate the public about their role in American history.
More Videos Saving the Flying Fortress It was accepted into service on April 7, -- too late for combat though used for air-sea rescue duties. Several years later, the plane was subjected to the effects of atomic test explosions.
It was sold as scrap in the mids and then found a valuable use dropping water and chemicals on forest fires, the blog says. After a restoration, the bomber was sold to the foundation in It did have a mishap one year later. In Augustwhile performing at an air show in western Pennsylvania, Nine-O-Nine was caught by a severe crosswind after landing.
The bomber suffered severe damage, though no fatalities. The aircraft was repaired and featured in countless air shows over the past 30 years, proving it was a true workhorse. The flight tracking service FlightAware showed dozens of flights in the last few weeks, with stops in Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire and Massachusetts.
Here, the interior of the Sentimental Journey. The website Airplanes of the Past listed 10 airworthy Bs in the country. Many are based at museums. Those not so fortunate are long retired to aviation junkyards, destined for a rusty demise. The ground -- about 2, feet below Sentimental Journey -- is visible through the gap between the gun turret and the deck.
Various groups, including the Collings Foundation and Commemorative Air Force, have worked to preserve the legacy of these planes by keeping them flying. B, P, and B planes regularly fly to airports around the country for air shows, tours or other events. Getting aboard a B involves stepping up a short ladder and ducking through a small hatch in the back of the plane.Latitude and Longitude. Latitude and Longitude look up Table.
This table gives the latitude and longitude of various major cities around the world. The first column gives the Latitude in degrees and minutes.
The second column gives the Longitude in degrees and minutes. The angular distance between an imaginary line around a heavenly body parallel to its equator and the equator itself. Lines of latitude The angular distance between a point on any meridian and the prime meridian at Greenwich. For Sri Lanka a detailed latitude and longitude table for many towns and villages is supplied here which is available for the first time in the web. A strology - year Predictions This is my personnel web site.
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If you are not a believer, then give it a try just for the fun of it at least. Then you can judge for yourself. I assure you that, with my help, you can discover your Destiny. How to: Find the letters for the Name of a new born Child in line with Astrology. How to find Rahu Kala Bad period of a day as per Astrology. Astrology related traditions. Planetarium and the Virtual Space Tour. Games for kids. Unique in this site Book of Life. You will not get it from any where else.
Unique in this site. Your Book of Life - Full reading. Do I really need a Full Reading?Seven people aboard a vintage World War II plane were killed Wednesday when it crashed shortly after takeoff, erupting into flames at Bradley International Airport, just outside of Hartford, Connecticut, authorities said.
State Police Commissioner James Rovella told reporters at an evening news conference that the families of all but three of the victims had been contacted. Download the NBC News app for breaking news and politics. The flight took off at a. The plane tried to return to the airport when it crashed at a. There were 13 people on board the Boeing B, two pilots, one attendant, and 10 passengers.
Another person on the ground was injured when the plane slid off the runway and slammed into a building used to house the airport's deicing equipment, officials said. Hamer saw smoke coming from the back of the craft and heard one engine sputter. Another witness, Antonio Arreguin, was parked at a construction site yards from the crash site when he heard an explosion — and felt the heat from the ensuing fire. Hartford Hospital received six patients from the crash, three were initially listed in critical condition, two in moderate condition and one with just minor injuries, doctors there said.
The Federal Aviation Administration said the craft, a Boeing B, went down at the end of runway 6 and slid off. Bradley, the second largest airport in New England, was closed and the FAA put in a ground stop for all arriving flights. One runway of the airport reopened shortly after p. Several flights headed for Bradley were diverted to the T.
Many planes in the "Wings of Freedom" show are owned by the Collings Foundation. Bradley Airport confirmed the B that went down Wednesday is owned by that nonprofit organization from Stow, Massachusetts. The crashed B had been one of 18 still registered to fly in the United States, according to Connecticut Gov. Ned Lamont. David K. Li is a breaking news reporter for NBC News. Jay Blackman is an NBC News producer covering such areas a transportation, space, medical and consumer issues.
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The news and stories that matter, delivered weekday mornings. By David K. Li, Jay Blackman and Janelle Griffith. Let our news meet your inbox.An unavoidable time lag exists between the conception of a weapon and its tactical use, and this is particularly true of such a complex machine as the modern combat plane. Despite intensive efforts during the war to shorten the interval, the lag was rarely less than three and often as much as five or more years.
The major wartime achievements in research and development--for example, jet propulsion--had their chief effect on the tactical strength of the air force only after the war was over.
But if the AAF necessarily fought with prewar types of aircraft, a multitude of modifications made the AAF's planes far superior to their and predecessors. The more highly publicized planes, such as the B and the P, became familiar to the American public according to a conventional mode of designation that combined a letter as the symbol of function with a numeral to indicate sequence within a type.
The men who flew in combat, and who thus knew at first hand the desperate need to counter each tactical or technical advance by the enemy, gave closer attention to the letter appended after the numeral to indicate the model, for the BE incorporated improvements over the earlier BD.
Only as a plane reached the state of obsolescence did the AAF leave off in a continuing effort to improve its performance and its equipment. The application of radar to problems of navigation and target identification undoubtedly represented the most significant advance of the war years, but for the development of radar devices of all sorts the AAF looked to the Signal Corps until late in Similarly, the Ordnance Department of the Army carried the responsibility for armament employed in aircraft--a field in which the chief progress during the war came in the use of guns of heavier caliber and in larger numbers.
Although an armament conference of Air Corps leaders meeting in December had emphasized the need for development of weapons specifically designed for use in the airplane, the AAF in was still basically dependent, bombs alone excepted, upon adaptations of weapons originally designed for ground or naval use.
But if responsibility in significant areas of development was thus divided, there was no division in so far as the airplane itself was concerned. For the airframe, for its armor, and for its motive force, and for such developments as the power-driven turret and a central control of firepower, the responsibility was clearly fixed within the AAF.
The military aircraft of World War II was a monoplane with one to four engines and an aluminum airframe housing a mass of equipment for the purposes of navigation, armament, communication, and crew accommodation. The power plant and its accompanying propeller were the keys to aircraft performance, for speed, range, altitude, and rate of climb depended in large measure on the power and efficiency of the propulsion unit.
The race to increase the power ratings of existing engines and to develop new ones was among the most significant competitions of the war. The maximum horsepower actually in use in was somewhat lower than shown above because the engines with the take-off ratings were usually not yet incorporated in combat models. Heavier planes which required more powerful engines became still heavier with the installation of larger engines. In the effort to secure maximum power with a minimum weight, engines, like the planes they served, went through many changes.
Two developments perfected during the 's--the supercharger and the controllable-pitch constant-speed propeller--played important parts in increasing the efficiency of the aircraft engine. The controllable-pitch constant-speed propeller could be set to maintain any chosen engine speed and thereby permitted maximum utilization of available engine power under all conditions.
The supercharger, a device for increasing the mass air charge of an internal combustion engine over that which would normally be drawn in by the pistons, is used to compensate for the lower density of air at high altitudes.
It was the supercharger, either as an integral part of or as a separate unit attached to increasingly powerful engines, which permitted the. The number was fixed by the cubic-inch piston displacement. The success of the British with the Rolls Royce Merlin engine and the obvious desirability of having another source of production persuaded the Air Corps to initiate production of the Merlin engine in the United States in The Packard Motor Car Company manufactured the engine as the V, beginning inafter an "extraordinarily rapid and excellent job of redrawing the engine to conform to American production standards and practices.
By the end of hostilities all heavy bombers had achieved a ceiling of more than 30, feet and that of the B approached 40, Similarly, speed had been increased and range extended. The miles per hour maximum and miles combat range of the P in contrasted sharply with the almost miles per hour of the PH and the better than 2,mile range of the PN in In the BB was credited with a high speed of miles per hour and a combat range of 1, miles.Inthe latest incarnation "Buk-M3" was scheduled for production.
The naval system was scheduled for delivery in The Buk missile system was designed to surpass the 2K12 Kub in all parameters, and its designers, including its chief designer Ardalion Rastovvisited Egypt in to see Kub in operation.
As a result of this visit, the developers came to the conclusion that each Buk transporter erector launcher TEL should have its own fire control radar, rather than being reliant on one central radar for the whole system as in Kub. In the developers determined that although the Buk missile system is the successor to the Kub missile system, both systems could share some interoperability.
The result of this decision was the 9K Buk-1 system. The Buk-1 was adopted into service in following completion of state trials, while the complete Buk missile system was accepted into service in  after state trials took place between and The naval variant of the 9K37 "Buk", the 3S90 "Uragan," was developed by the Altair design bureau under the direction of chief designer G.
After the 9S90 system was tested, between and on the Kashin-class destroyer Provornyit was accepted into service in on the Project Sovremenny-class destroyers. Additionally a non-cooperative threat classification system was installed, relying on analysis of returned radar signals to purportedly identify and clearly distinguish civilian aircraft from potential military targets in the absence of IFF. Another modification to the Buk missile system was started in with work carried out between and to produce the 9K37M Buk-M,  which entered service in Such sharing of the missile type caused a transition to a different GRAU designation, 9K, which has been used independently for all later systems.
The previous 9K37 series name was also preserved for the complex, as was the "Buk" name. The new missile, as well as a variety of other modifications, allowed the system to shoot down ballistic missiles and surface targets, as well as enlarging the "performance and engagement envelope" zone of danger for potential attack for more traditional targets like aircraft and helicopters.
The Buk-M modernisation — based on a previous more advanced developmental system referred to as the 9K "Buk-M2"  — featured new missiles and a new third-generation phased array fire control radar allowing targeting of up to four targets while tracking an additional He stipulated that the M3 would feature advanced electronic components and enter into service in It can guide up to three missiles against a single target.
While the early Buk had a day radar tracking system 9Sh38 similar to that used on KubTor and Osa missile systemits current design can be fitted with a combined optical tracking system with a thermal camera and a laser range-finder for passive tracking of the target. A reload vehicle can transfer its missiles to a TELAR in around 13 minutes and can reload itself from stores in around 15 minutes. This vehicle could be used together with two TELs 9A to attack up to four targets, missile guidance in forested or hilly regions.
A self-propelled fire simulator installation JMA 9AET SAM "Buk-M2E", based on the mobile, is designed for training and evaluating the combat crew in the war environment to detect, capture, lock on to "maintain" and defeat targets. A computer information system fully records all actions of the crew to a "black box" to allow objective assessment of the consistency of the crew's actions and results. This processor is also used in such military systems as anti-submarine defence Korshun and Sovaairborne radars for MiG and MiGmobile tactical missile systems TochkaOka and Volga.
Currently, [ when? Inthe system was demonstrated to be capable of intercepting Scud missiles and large rocket artillery.
The Buk is a mobile, radar-guided surface-to-air missile SAM missile system with all four main components — acquisition and targeting radars, a command element, missile launchers, and a logistics element — mounted on tracked vehicles.
This allows the system to move with other military forces and relocate to make it a more difficult target to find than a fixed SAM system. In general, the system identifies potential targets radarselects a particular target commandfires a missile launcher at the target, and resupplies the system logistics. The missiles require a radar lock to initially steer the missile to the target until the missile's on-board radar system takes over to provide final course corrections.
A proximity fuse aboard the missile determines when it will detonate, creating an expanding fragmentation pattern of missile components and warhead to intercept and destroy the target.
Alternatively, the command component may be able to remotely detonate the missile, or the on-board contact fuse will cause the warhead to detonate. Since the introduction of the Buk in the s, the capabilities of its system components have evolved, which has led to different nomenclature and nicknames for the components' variants. The Buk has also been adapted for use on naval vessels.